POLYUS Research Institute of M.F. Stelmakh Joint Stock Company was established in the system of electronic industry by the Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated 24 of March 1962 as SRI-333. Mitrofan Fedorovich Stelmakh (1918-1993), famous Soviet military radio engineer, was the first director.
The history of OJSC "Polyus research institute of M.F.Stelmakh" is a chain of “significant” scientific inventions and discoveries. During the existence of the institute his employees carried out many promising works.
In the period from 1962 to 1969, the first ruby laser in the electronics industry of domestic manufacture was developed; lasing in the diode laser based on gallium arsenide was obtained and patented (one year prior to similar American invention); the first industrial system based on the K-1 ruby laser, the progenitor of the KVANT well-known series, was created; the USSR's first laser gyroscope of T-130 was assembled and put into operation; the first commercial laser diode of LD-1 and the KOMETA semiconductor quantum generator were developed; the USSR's first neodymium-doped YAG crystals were grown up and Nd:YAG laser rods were made; the first domestic laser oncological medical system of IMPULS-1 for superficial coagulation of tumors was created; the first commercial laser gyroscopes of KM-20 and KM-43 were developed.
In the period from 1971 to 1977, for the first time the field tests of the KONTRAST-2 laser rangefinder using Nd:YAG crystal were carried out; the ruby laser as a part of the complex of Space Instrumentation Scientific Research Institute successfully performed the optical location of “Lunokhod-2” on the surface of the Moon; the USSR's first laser surgical system of SKALPEL-1 based on the LG-25 sealed CO2 laser for bloodless surgery was developed (more than 500 such systems were manufactured at URLZ); the LGA laser engraving machine using CO2 laser and the ML-7 modulator for manufacture of printing forms was developed; the unique electrooptical Q-switch based on lithium niobate not having analogs was developed; the first serial tunable dye laser of LZhI-501 was created; the first serial photoreceiving module of LFDP-3 for laser rangefinders was created; the first commercial acoustooptic modulator of ML-201 was developed.
In the period from 1980 to 1989, the institute developed the ILTI-403 emitter, which for some years was used in the lidar aboard the MIR space station; the diode laser rangefinder, served as a prototype model of LISD devices (laser velocimeter/rangefinder) was created; the KVANT-60 laser marking system (more than 200 pieces of these systems were manufactured in series at URLZ) was created; the first Laser Designator/Rangefinder of 1D15 for high-accuracy weapon has been adopted; the LPI-101 laser was adopted as a part of the TUNGUSKA missile complex; the flight tests of the KM-11-1 laser gyros in the navigation system for aircrafts of civil aviation were started; for the first time the successful field tests of the MT-5 Zeeman laser gyroscope as a part of the aircraft system were carried out; the unique tunable dye laser of LZhI-506 with acoustooptic wavelength control not having analogs was developed; the KM-11 laser gyro was successfully operated in space on the KOSMOS-1818 satellite for 142 days; the FPU-03 photoreceiving module widely used in devices of the institute and other organizations was developed; the first commercial small-sized diode-pumped solid-state lasers were developed.
In the period from 1994 to 1998, the FPU-11 double-channel photoreceiving module for laser gyros was developed; the certificate of airworthiness for the IL-96-300 aircraft with the navigation system based on the KM-11-1A laser gyro was issued; the first samples of microchip lasers based on Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG monoblock were created; the LT-9 high-performance compact solid-state laser, successfully used on the MIR space station up to the completion of its flight in 2001, was developed.
In the period from 2000 to 2013, together with LASEX СJSC the NSI-2000 strapdown inertial navigation system based on Zeeman laser gyros and integrated with the OR8 and GLONASS systems for the IL-76 aircrafts was developed; the state tests of the ZHurnalist mobile automated publishing and editorial complex used in the field in Khankala (Chechnya) were successfully completed; a new modern equipment of MOS-hydride epitaxy was launched; the set of the digital transmitting and receiving fiberoptic modules of POM-24 and PROM-12 for fiberoptic local information networks at a data transmission rate up to 100 Mbps was created; at Naro (South Korea) spaceport the successful field tests of the first in domestic cosmonautics fiberoptic complex for collection, processing and transfer of information from the sensors of the ground measureming system of the KSLV-1 rocket-space complex were carried out; the Russian first laser gyrocompass of LGK-4 was adopted as a part of the VIZIR complex; the new samples of the high-accuracy laser gyros were developed; the samples of high-stable emitters based on single-frequency diode lasers for airborne space rubidium and cesium frequency standards for GLONASS system were developed; the successful autonomous tests of the VOKSNI complex for the ANGARA new-generation rocket-space complex were carried out; the launch of the KSLV-1 rocket at Naro spaceport (South Korea), preparation of which was carried out by means of the domestic fiberoptic complex for collection, processing and transfer of information from the sensors of the ground measuring system of the rocket-space complex, and other works were successfully performed.
In 2014, the successful launch of the ANGARA-1.2PP light class rocket from Plesetsk spaceport was performed. Preparation of the launch was carried out by means of the domestic fiberoptic complex for collection, processing and transfer of information from the sensors of the ground measuring system of the rocket-space complex, developed by POLYUS Research Institute JSC.
The achievements of POLYUS Research Institute JSC were highly appreciated by the state: the staff of the institute was awarded the Lenin Prize, more than 30 people were awarded the USSR State Prize, Russian Federation Government Prize, more than 40 young specialists were awarded the Lenin Komsomol Prize.